How to treat your seed and make it ready for planting

By David Njagi

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The purpose of any seed treatment is to improve its performance. If you are a farmer struggling to generate the right seed for planting M.A. Mushira of CIMBRIA takes you through the process of treating your seed from harvesting to planting.
After seed is harvested, there are equipments that do all operations required on that seed material to make it suitable for planting.
Shelling
The first stage in seed processing is shelling or threshing the seed material. This is done with shelling machines. But the other seed material may not require shelling because they are threshed.
Normally, seed is harvested at moisture content that is a little bit higher than the required safety levels for storage.
Hence, material for shelling must be done on machines that are properly selected, set and adjusted, so that during shelling, the seed material is not damaged, either externally or internally.
Drying
After the seed is shelled, it has to be dried so that the moisture content of the seed material is safe for its subsequent storage and processing.
Drying is done either by exposing to the sun or by artificial driers. The sun can be used to dry seed but it is important to harvest it at the right moisture content.
This is because sun drying, if not carefully handled can lead to over-drying of the seed, which can be damaged during shelling.
The seed is harvested when it has a moisture content of around 18 percent. In such a case, a farmer requires artificial drying to reduce the moisture content after shelling.
In all the drying arrangements, temperature level is important. Grain is usually dried at low temperatures.
For maize and other cereal crops, the temperature range should be between 13 degrees Celsius and 13.5 degrees Celsius so that the grain is safe for storage.
But drying temperature alone is not important. What is most important is the kernel temperature during drying.
This is because if the temperature is too high, it can destroy the germination capability of the seed.
For example, for maize, the kernel temperature must not exceed 43 degrees Celsius. For wheat, it must not exceed 43 degrees Celsius to 49 degrees Celsius. For barley it must not exceed 49 degrees Celsius.
Storage
After grain is dried, the next operation in post harvest handling of grain is storage.
This is necessary so that the grain can be stored safely for subsequent operations. The store must be clean, safe and free from moisture.
The pre cleaned dry grain which is stored safely can now be drawn and processed into seed.
Fine cleaning
The most important operation that follows includes fine cleaning. This makes sure that the grain is free from any impurities.
Any dust or foreign material must be removed so that the seed is of very high purity. After the seed has been fine cleaned, it can then be sorted and graded.
Grading is separating the seed into different quality factions.
Separating of the seed depends on physical characteristics, like length, weight, thickness, colour, and specific weight, among others.
Seed treating and packaging
After the seed has been graded, sorted and fine cleaned, the next operation is seed treating and packaging.
Seed treating is where the cleaned seed is dressed with a chemical that helps to prevent disease and pest attack on the seed before planting.
Equipment
There is a whole range of equipment for doing fine cleaning, grading and sorting.
For example for fine cleaning, farmers should use flat screen cleaners or the delta cleaners. These use screen and air.
The screens are also oscillating with the machine to make sure very fine precision cleaning is obtained for the seed.
For grading, equipments like gravity separator, cylindrical cylinders, destoners, among others, are used.
These are rather conventional machines for grading and sorting seed.
Nowadays, there are optical machines to help in grading and sorting. The optical machine is mainly a colour sorter which can also be used to separate seed according to either, colour, shade or shape.
There are conventional equipment for seed treating which are drum like with a screw conveyor for mixing the seed with the chemical.
The latest addition to this range of seed treating equipment is the centricoater.
The centricoater is a new invention which is good for all types of seed and can use all types of chemicals that are in slurry form, powder form, or even for pelleting or coating the seed.
The centricoater has the advantage in that it uses resources like water and chemicals very efficiently.
It is very accurate in its operations because it uses a Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) based system for weighing, treating and discharging the seed from the seed treater.
It is the ultimate seed treater at the moment. It can do both bulge seed treating or continuous seed treating, meaning it can be a continuous line for seed production.
Where you can get equipment
CIMBRIA supplies a whole range of equipment for doing fine cleaning, grading and sorting.
Overall, CIMBRIA has the capacity for designing, manufacturing, and supplying seed plants on a timely basis, or individual machines for specific operations in the seed line.
The focus for all equipment supplied by CIMBRIA is to make sure that seed is handled gently with minimum wastage and dust emissions to the atmosphere in order to cause minimum impact to the environment.
CIMBRIA manufactures artificial driers, and this can be used either for shelled maize or for maize still on cob.
M.A. Mushira is the Area sales manager at CIMBRIA East Africa Ltd. His contacts are:
Mobile: +254 722 374 329
E-mail: info@cimbria.co.ke

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Obabi, poll violence, and elusive justice

By David Njagi

Gladys Nanjala Obabi is pleased with the growing calls for a peaceful General Election in August this year. S

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he would like the message to be taken a step further.
Obabi is a survivor of sexual violence that rocked the country during the 2007/08 Post Election Violence (PEV). But justice has never been served for the suffering she and her family have gone through.
“It all started at my business premises in Chwele, Bungoma County,” recalls the mother of four. “A group of men forced their way into my shop and started taking my stock. I protested and screamed for help. They raped me.”
Sympathizers found her lying on the floor of her shop half dead. The assailants had stolen all her stock after beating her and knocking off her teeth, she says.
“I suffered a serious back injury. I could not get treatment because the hospitals were not working,” she says, adding that the Sabaot Land Defence Forces (SLDF) had threatened to kill any medic found treating survivors of the violence.
Her woes would not end there. When sympathizers took her home, she found the SLDF assailants had raided it and killed her husband.
“They even raped my eldest daughter,” says Obabi. “She got pregnant and now she has to raise a child without a father.”
After weighing the situation, Obabi was forced to move with her family to Silisia to start a new life.
But life became even more difficult there. She was jobless. Even for the lighter jobs she was offered like weeding in a farm, she could not sustain them for long because her back injury still affected her output.
“After doing a little work, I could not sleep at night. My whole body would be in pain,” she says, adding that she was reduced to begging.
Over the years, she started getting sick. When her cousin took her to hospital in 2012, she was diagnosed with HIV.
Obabi says there is nothing she can do about the assailants. But her greatest rage is with the Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission (TJRC).
According to her, TJRC has failed in its search for justice for survivors of sexual violence during the 2007/08 PEV.
“They (TJRC) are jokers,” she says. “They have summoned us many times to give our testimonies but nothing has been done about it. We are still suffering.”
When TJRC reached out to survivors in 2008, she says, they convinced her and others that they were collecting evidence so that they could seek compensation and restitution for the affected families.
“TJRC has wasted us because it has not fulfilled any of its promises yet we used our time to give testimonials,” she says. “I wish they could have left us to form a movement of survivors in Kenya seeking justice.”
The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) acknowledges the state has abandoned survivors of the 2007/08 poll violence.
According to ICTJ official, Christopher Gitari, the government does not want to admit this group of Kenyans exists.
Yet, the government promised that it ‘will not rest’ until every PEV survivor has been compensated, argues a statement by the survivors of sexual violence in Kenya issued in June this year, calling for a peaceful election.
“Victims of sexual violence are neglected and ignored by the government,” argues Gitari. “Even the communities where they come from have abandoned them.”
In the statement, the group is calling on the government to operationalize the Ksh. 10 billion Restorative Justice Fund, to ensure survivors of past human rights violations are offered redress, including those who have suffered sexual violence.
It also wants the government to issue a code of conduct guiding security operations and deployments during the polls, and publicly declare security agents will desist from violating civilians.
“It is ironical that survivors of poll violence are victimized by the government yet perpetrators of violence are not prosecuted,” argues Wangu Kanja, a lead official with the movement.
Cyprian Nyamwamu, the director, Future of Kenya Foundation, argues that the state has failed to create reforms to enable it prevent poll violence directed at women.
“Civilized governments restore people affected by poll violence first before they make policy to prevent future conflict,” said Nyamwamu.
For now, Obabi, who belongs to the survivors of sexual violence in Kenya movement, would be happy if the government helped her family with just food. But even that basic need has proved elusive.
“We stand here to remind the government that justice for survivors of sexual violence is still an unfinished business,” says the statement. “The longer it takes to address the issue of accountability, the more survivors continue to suffer.”

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Farmers battle crop failure by harvesting premature maize

By David Njagi

NGOLIBA, Kenya – Until a maize crop has gone through the eight month cycle of maturity, hardly can farmers claim a harvest. John Mwema does.
But the 34-year-old’s maize crop at the one acre farm in Ngoliba village, Eastern Kenya, is not the ordinary one grown by thousands of farmers in Kenya.
Baby corn, or cornlette, is the variety of maize that keeps Mwema returning to the farm for a harvest at least three times with every crop sown.
“It is a type of maize that is harvested while looking like it is immature. It is eaten whole including the cob,” said Mwema, adding that it takes about 50 days since planting for him to make the first harvest.
At this time of the year, the terrain at Mwema’s village is dotted with drying thickets. A Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) reading indicates that temperatures can be as high as 40 degrees Celsius here.
By his estimation, it last rained in December 2016. But his farm is covered by green corn, which he has kept this way by watering from the nearby Thika River.
It is understandable that Mwema can spend most of the day tending to his crop. For planting just five kilogrammes of seed, he now has about 35,000 crops to care for.
Each of these, he said, will produce two to three cobs, and can yield up to a tonne until the last harvest.
“Baby corn matures very fast. Nothing is wasted from the crop,” he said, indicating that even the maize stalks are sold to livestock farmers as fodder.
But it is the attractive prices that his crop fetches that keeps him working resiliently at the farm.
When he has placed an order locally with outlets like Nakumatt supermarket, he sells a kilogramme for about $ 2. For local folks buying from his farm, a dollar for one kilo of baby corn keeps money flowing in.
Martha Musyoka, a scientist at the Nairobi-based International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) said there is a promising export market for baby corn because of the demand for the product in Europe.
But even locally, appetite for the crop is on the rise, indicating that farmers in central and eastern Kenya are now growing the crop to meet rising local demand.
“The cob is very tender and is harvested when it is not very thick,” said Musyoka. “It is very nutritious and is eaten as a salad or as a cooked meal.”
There is a climate change appeal too. According to her, the weather at Mwema’s village is suitable for the Thai Gold, Baby Corn ZS206, G5414 and SG18, varieties that are being grown in Kenya.
Due to its fast maturing ability, she said, farmers do not have to rely on rainfall to grow baby corn. All one needs is a source of water to irrigate the crop, argued Musyoka.
“It also acts as a wind breaker in dry areas,” she added, but warned that the crop needs a lot of attention and delicate care when growing it.
Joseph Muthengi, a fresh produce farmer in Eastern Kenya agrees. The 39-year-old was a passionate baby corn grower.
For him, having a ready crop meant that companies like Kenya Fresh, could buy the product directly from his farm for export to the European Union (EU) market.
“The returns in terms of money were so good that I was even planning to buy extra land to plant more baby corn,” said Muthengi, as he recalls the good fortunes that trickled in, four years ago.
However, the fortunes stopped flowing when the EU introduced regulations and standards that required farmers to meet certain conditions for their crop to be accepted into the lucrative market.
These conditions included, where the crop was being grown, and the type of chemicals used on the crop, among others, he recalled.
“They started rejecting our produce. This was a blow to us because of the losses we incurred,” recalled Muthengi, who now grows French beans and tomatoes.
At one time, he said, 10 crates of produce which he had harvested and packed were rejected.
“The best way to protect farmers from international market pressures is to train them on value addition and market their produce locally,” said Su Kahumbu of the Food Network East Africa.
“The local market is the closest one for fresh produce farmers and has few market risks,” she added.
However, Apollo Owuor, an agronomist working in Kenya, advises farmers to grow baby corn in rotation with other crops like pulses and pepper.

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Laziness is killing African women, report says

By David Njagi

african-woman
Laziness is a leading cause of lifestyle diseases in Africa, a new report by the World Health Organization (WHO) has established.
The report on the status of major health risk factors for noncommunicable diseases says women are more likely to catch a lifestyle disease due to poor physical activity.
The main Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) listed by WHO include heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive lung disease.
These are likely to surpass sickness and death from infectious diseases by 2030, the report says.
WHO regional director for Africa, Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, links the rising cases of NCDs in Africa to diversion of resources to serve emergencies such as Zika and Ebola.
“Amidst these emergencies we cannot lose sight of the enormous health dangers posed by NCDs since many of these can be prevented through changes in behavior and lifestyle,’’ says Dr. Moeti.
The report also lists tobacco use, alcoholism, failure to consume five servings of fruits and vegetables every day, as other causes of NCDs.
While this is the case, at least one in three adults in Africa suffers from hypertension or high blood pressure.
“High blood pressure can damage the heart leading to heart attacks, congestive heart failure, and fatty build up in the arteries, causing them to harden,” says Dr. Abdikamal Alisalad, acting irector of WHO’s NCD cluster. “It can also contribute to stroke, kidney damage and vision loss.”
But it can be successfully treated through lifestyle changes and medication, said Dr. Alisalad.
For instance, WHO recommends adults to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate, or one hour of vigorous physical activity every week.
Moderate physical activities include brisk walking, doing household chores, and dancing, while running, carrying heavy loads, swimming, and cycling qualify as vigorous physical activities.

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Nairobi’s leopard is threatened by human encroachment, scientists say

By David Njagi

leopard

The leopard population in Kenya’s Nairobi National Park is on the decline due to what scientists link to disturbance of their migratory corridors.
A seven year study has found out that encroachment of the leopard’s migration corridor is restraining the female to venture out to look for a male. This disrupts their mating cycles.
For instance, the study, conservation biology for the leopards in Kenya, says a male leopard needs to control a terrain of about 100 square kilometers.
The Nairobi national park, which hosts about 17 leopards is 117 square kilometers big. This means only a single male can control this territory, explains Yumi Yamane, a guest researcher at Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS).
“It can lead to violent confrontation for females and territory among the males leaving them severely wounded,” explains Yamane. “This can affect their mating ability.”
But the leopard also likes to live in secrecy and explore its territory under the cover of the bush, she says.
“This means the female leopard cannot go out to look for a mating partner because the migratory corridor has been disturbed by infrastructure development,” argues Yamane.
According to the researcher, Nairobi national park is a very important habitat for the leopard because it likes to perch on trees.
But huge infrastructural projects in road, railway and housing have led to the felling of trees within the leopards’ migratory corridor to pave way for construction.
“Leopards like to perch and move around where there is plenty of tree cover,” argues Yumi. “If the migratory corridor is disturbed then their numbers will decline very soon.”
KWS officials say they are trying to solve the problem by relocating the Nairobi leopard into other habitats like Meru national park.
However, this is proving difficult because the newcomers must fight for acceptance in the new habitat.
Oftentimes, the bullied cats stray into communities leading to increased human-wildlife conflict, argues Geoffrey Bundotich, an official at the Meru national park.
“The communities are against the re-introduction of leopards from other parks because the cats often move and resettle outside the parks,” explains Bundotich.
It is a challenge that KWS is grappling with, and according to Yamane, there is no solution in sight since the leopard is very difficult to monitor.
However, Edin Kara, KWS officer in charge of parks and reserves, says the important thing is continued monitoring to find out how the re-introduced animals can be able to adopt.

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Drought is breeding new pests, scientists warn

By David Njagi

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Farmers should brace for tougher times ahead following a surge of new generation pests, scientists have warned.
Destructive pests like the white fly, thrips and spider mites are evolving into new bugs for every slight increase in temperatures, according to the Association of International Research and Development Centers for Agriculture (AIRCA).
But there is no solution is sight, argued AIRCA chairman, Dr. Dyno Keatinge, during the Global Action Plan for Agriculture Diversification in Nairobi.
“This is something the government, the Ministry of Agriculture. Livestock and fisheries, and research firms need to be concerned about,” said Dr. Keatinge.
For instance, he says, as the temperature rises, the white fly is able to evolve into two or three generations each year.
According to him, Kenyan farmers should diversify into other crops to cushion them from the ever increasing problem of pests and diseases.
Research institutions should also share and transfer new technologies to subsistence farmers, he added.
“Farmers need to have information on how to deal with pests and disease,” Dr. Keatinge. “But the bitter truth is that meteorological data in Africa as a whole is of very poor quality.”
However, Dr. James Nyoro, the government advisor on agriculture, says Kenya is well positioned to deal with emerging pests because there is a lot of research being done of water tolerant crop varieties.
According to him, farmers should be encouraged to practice climate smart agriculture by feeding them with alerts on new pests.
This, he says, will enable researchers to develop new pesticides, but more importantly, develop predators that can feed on new infestations.
“One of the ways of dealing with adverse climate change effects is technology development,” argues Dr. Nyoro. “We need to put our money where our mouth is in terms of generating research and development.”
Scientists say Africa experiences a rise in temperatures of about two to 2.5 degrees centigrade every year. But this varies with different locations.

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Love children with mental disabilities

By David Njagi

mental-illnessParents who react negatively to children with psychosocial disorders may discourage them from seeking treatment.

Case studies shared during a Users and Survivors of Psychiatry in Kenya (USP Kenya) media workshop reveal that children who are shown love by their families are more likely to adhere to treatment than those who are shunned.

In cases where parents are hostile to psychosocial disorders in the family, the children are even likely to become suicidal.

“I have tried to commit suicide twice because my family could not understand my bipolar condition,” said Tabitha. “They even took me to a police station to force me to take medicine.”

USP Kenya officials say such conflict can be solved by providing mental health services within the communities instead of restricting them to mental health institutions.

According to Michael Njenga, an official with the organization, treating psychosocial disorders is not only about medication, but it also requires family support and care.

“Family support is very important in mental health treatment because when someone is going through a traumatic experience one needs to go through counseling,” says Njenga.

Human rights activists accuse the society of stigmatizing people living with mental disability. This could explain why the hostility is extended to the family level.

“Tracking people living with mental disabilities for treatment becomes very difficult in Kenya because they are stigmatized by both the society and the family,” says Elizabeth Kamundia, a human rights activist. “This is why most of them are locked away from the public by the family.”

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